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In a reduction firing, the oxygen supply to the kiln chamber is restricted, resulting in a saturation of free carbons in the kiln atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. In a strong reduction firing, flames will lick out of the flue and through other openings or cracks in the kiln walls. This is because the flame needs oxygen to burn, so it will try to get it from wherever it can. The reduction cycle generally begins between 1600o-1900o F (900o - 1000o C). Typical reduction glazes are 'copper reds' and 'shinos'.